Cognitive Neuroscience

Over the past decades, the illumination of connection between structure and function has been a major plunge in the field of cognitive neuroscience of the human brain. The grounds of functional neuroimaging have been expanded dominantly as compared to the lesion studies with respect to neuropsychological methods for informing theories of cognition. Although both the techniques, functional neuroimaging and lesion studies, possess their own weaknesses as well as the limitation; however, there is a potential difference among the nature of evidence provided by both techniques. For instance, lesson study is effective in the provision of indications as well as suggestions for necessity claims, while functional neuroimaging lacks this property of evidence. However, the advanced technicalities of functional neuroimaging cannot be undermined. It is considered to have dominant potency in the field of cognitive neuroscience since it enables the determination of the duration and area of incidence of neural activity in human brain, and its relationship with the neurological performance regarding a specific cognitive task.

Ideal Activity of Human Brain

The ideal activity of human brain based on three principles which include conceptual knowledge, visual object processing and executive function. Each entity is responsible for different set of tasks performed by the human body, such as conceptual knowledge indicates the multi-modal semantic database, non-verbal and verbal stimuli; the visual object processing controls the physical property (for example texture, color, shape, etc.) as well as semantic attributes of the objects (for example previous experience, usage understanding, etc); whereas the executive function controls the multi-functioning abilities of the brain, such as finishing of work, making plans, analyzing concepts, looking for information, multitasking, learning information.

Concept of Association

The concept of association between the functions and structures of human brain has remained a major area of debate for the researchers of cognitive neuroscience. Over the last decade, different approaches to accomplish this concept have undergone substantial changes in the field. Particularly, the techniques of functional neuroimaging are quickly replacing the existing techniques involved in neuropsychological studies as a dominant method in individuals with brain lesions. However, both the techniques lesion studies and functional imaging are different in significant respect. The difference that lies between these two techniques has provided a ground of evidences for complementary rather than competitive approaches. The field of neuroimaging research has augmented the understanding of a number of cognitive abilities, such as memory, language, attention, etc. Furthermore, it also provides assistance for the advanced approaches to surgical planning, increased perception into the etiology of different neurological disorders, as well as the efficient recovery after the brain damage. A number of researches represented the phenomenon of neurological imaging and their approaches to adjudicate between neurological and psychological models. The field of executive functioning of the human brain has attained much attention of the researchers in the last several years. The executive functions are considered as exclusive set of neurological skills which involve the performance of tasks, such as switching focus, paying attention, managing time, remembering the details, organizing, and planning, avoiding doing the wrong task or saying the wrong thing, remembering the previous experience, etc. These skills are exclusively controlled by the frontal lobe of the brain. The behavior becomes less controlled if the executive function does not work properly, which may lead to ultimate loss of functioning, such as learning disabilities, depression, ADHD and other related disorders.


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