International Peace and Security
Maintenance of international peace and security
When created in 1945, following a second devastating world war, the United Nations has been provided by its founding members a priority objective i.e. the maintenance of peace and security. United Nations activities cover mainly the areas of war prevention, peacekeeping and taking enforcement action. To ensure full effectiveness, it is vital that these actions are established simultaneously or they follow one another. The Security Council is responsible primarily for the maintenance of international peace and security. The Secretary-General and the General Assembly play essential and complementary roles, in collaboration with other United Nations offices and organs.
The Security Council is responsible primarily for establishing the existence of a threat to peace or act of aggression. It invited the parties to a dispute to resolve it by peaceful means and endorse methods of adjustment and the terms of settlement as it deems appropriate. In some cases, it can impose sanctions or authorize the use of force to maintain or reestablish global harmony and safety.
The General Assembly is the main deliberative organ of representation and development of United Nations policy. Through regular meetings, it offers the Member States a forum to express their views and reach consensus on difficult issues. It makes recommendations, through resolutions. Decisions on significant subjects and issues such as peace and security, the admission of new members and budgetary matters require a majority of two-thirds. Others are adopted by a simple majority.
How the UN maintains international peace and security?
Preventive diplomacy and mediation
An effective way to reduce the suffering and the massive cost of conflicts is to prevent them. The UN plays an important role in conflict prevention, resorting to diplomacy, good offices, and mediation.
Maintain the peace
The Peacekeeping has proved to be one of the most effective tools in the UN service to help host countries on the difficult path from conflict to peace. The peacekeeping operations multidimensional today are not only used to maintain peace and security, but also to maintain the political procedure, protect civilians , and assist in the disarmament and demobilization. Operations peacekeeping received their mandate from the Security Council whereas troops and police are provided by the Member States and are managed by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, which supported by the Department of Field Support at United Nations Headquarters in New York. Sixteen UN peacekeeping operations are deployed at present and a total of 69 deployed since 1948.
Fight against terrorism
The UN is increasingly called upon to manage the global fight against terrorism . Within the UN system, eighteen universal instruments against terrorism have been developed on specific activities of terrorism. In September 2006, Member States adopted the Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy of the United Nations, marking the first time that the Member States agreed on a common framework against terrorism.
The General Assembly with other UN bodies and the support of the Office for Disarmament Affairs are working for disarmament and non-proliferation of biological, nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction, as well as conventional weapons in order to promote international peace and security.